Scrum 101 – Get to know the basics of Scrum Framework

Many people think that the Scrum and Agile are same but they are not. There are many frameworks available to implement Agile and the Scrum is one of the most popular amongst them. Some other frameworks are Kanban, Xtreme programming, etc.

Though the scrum is popular in software development, it can be applied to other industries as well. The goal of this article is to explain the Scrum in simple manner focused on software development.

Definition of Scrum

Scrum Teams


Sprint Planning

Daily Scrum

Sprint Review

Sprint Retrospective

Product Backlog

Sprint Backlog


User Stories

Scrum board

Definition of Done

Burndown chart

Team Velocity

Advantages of Scrum

Disadvantages of Scrum

Scrum Best Practices

Certifications available for Scrum

Free Resources to prepare for certifications


1. Definition of Scrum

If you’re working in IT, you’ve probably heard about Agile or Scrum right? Even the both names at a time, isn’t it? What are they?

Agile is talks about project management practices based on the four values and twelve principles of Agile Manifesto.

Scrum is a framework that can be used to implement Agile on simple to complex products. It is straightforward and easy to understand.

The Scrum Guide by reads:

“A framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.”

Scrum can be used in any industry and any kind of complex projects. If you are producing any kind of product then think about the Scrum, it will definitely help you to organize your team.

2. Scrum Teams : Definition and Roles

Let’s break down the parts involved in the Scrum framework. The Scrum team consists of

  • Product Owner
  • Development Team
  • Scrum Master

Product Owner is the person who is responsible for maximizing the value of work done by a development team. He is in charge of managing product backlogs. Product owner ensures that the development team understands the items in backlog and optimized the value of work.

Development Team includes developers, testers, designers and operations engineers.

The Scrum Master is the person who is responsible for making the team to follow Scrum process. Scrum Master can also be a member of development team and the role can also be assigned to different team member. The Product Owner can not be a Scrum Master.

3. Sprints

A Sprint is a predetermined time frame. Development team has to complete the set of tasks from the backlog within this time frame. Typical time is two weeks but it can change depends on the team needs.

4. Sprint Planning

The tasks which needs to be completed in the Sprint is planned at the Sprint Planning. The entire Scrum team will involve in creating a plan.

5. Daily Scrum

The Daily Scrum also known as ‘Daily Stand Ups’ is 15 minutes team meet happens every day to give progress report.

6. Sprint Review

At the end of each sprint, a sprint review will be done to inspect the increment. The Scrum team and stakeholders collaborate during the sprint review and the result of sprint review is a revised product backlog that defines the product backlog items in next sprint.

7. Sprint Retrospective

Sprint retrospective occurs between the Sprint review and the next Sprint Planning.

The goal of Sprint Retrospective is to inspect how the last sprint went; Identify the well went items and identify improvements; Creating a plan for implementing improvements.

8. Product Backlog

Product Backlog is the source of requirements for any changes to needed for the product. It’s a list of everything that is known to be needed in the product. Product owner is responsible for the product backlog.

Compare Scrum with Kanban

Scrum Vs Kanban

9. Sprint Backlog

Sprint Backlog is a forecast by the development team about the functionalities needed on the next increment and works needs to be done to deliver the funtionolties.

10. Increment

The increment also known as product increment is a step towards a goal or vision. It is the sum of all product backlog items completed during a sprint and previous sprints.  

11. User Stories

The User Story is a short description of functionality written from the perspective of end user or customer. The user stories are created by a Product Owner and it should represent some business requirements.

Format of the User Stories

The user story follows a template of requirement by the end user.

As a <type of user>, I want to do <a specific task>, so that I can <the reason for task>

Example User Stories

“As a site user, I can read current news on the homepage so that I can stay updated industry news.”

“As a site user, I can see list of available courses so that I can decide if I can attend any other course. ”

The INVEST model for user stories

Writing an effective user story is not easy always. The INVEST acronym will help you to remind the important attributes of a great story.

I – Independent

N – Negotiable

V – Valuable

E – Estimable

S – Small

T – Testable

The User Story Points

User story points is a number to understand the difficulty level of the user story. It’s an abstract measure of the amount of effort needed to implement a story.

To coordinate the work, the development team uses a Scrum Board during the Daily Scrum. It contains, list of stories for the current Sprint, tasks associated with these stories and the status of these tasks.

13. Definition of Done

Definition of Done is used to assess the quality of work when the user story is completed. The definition of Done is different for each scrum team.

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